Zhōng wén/Hàn yǔ
Yīng wén/Yīng yǔ
Fǎ wén/Fǎ yǔ
Dé wén/Dé yǔ
Yìdàlì wén/ Yìdàlì yǔ
Xībānyá wén/Xībānyá yǔ
Hélán wén/Hélán yǔ
Pútáoyá wén/Pútáoyá yǔ
Hán wén/Hán yǔ
Rì wén/Rì yǔ
So you can see from the list above, Chinese is the ONLY exception which you can not say "Zhōngyǔ 中语".
All other languages in Chinese you can basically add a yǔ 语or wén文 behind their country names(some times with the shorten form)
It's cause most Chinese use one written language which is "wén文" the written Chinese characters, but we speak mandarin, which is the dialect of the Han汉 group, Hàn yǔ汉语（mandarin)。
1， Can you speak xx language?
Nǐ huì shuō xx language ma?
2，What languages can you speak?
Nǐ huì shuō shénme yǔyán?
Sample sentences in a conversation:
Nǐ huì shuō rìyǔ ma?
Wǒ huì, nǐ ne? Nǐ huì shuō shénme yǔyán?
Wǒ huì shuō hànyǔ, yīngyǔ, hái yǒu xībānyá yǔ.
Nǐ zhēn niú!
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